Henry Cavendish (1731-1810)

English physicist and chemist was born in Nice, in October 10th 1731, and died, in Clapham, in March 10th 1810.

Cavendish is responsible for the first experimental determination of the gravitational constant made with a torsion balance built by him. Based on this work, he calculated the average density of the Earth. Cavendish proved experimentally the electrostatic law of the inverse square and showed that there was no charge remaining in a conductor material after it had been connected to an outer layer conductor. He also worked in Chemistry, identifying hydrogen and determining the composition of the atmosphere.

Most of his work is compiled in the book Electrical Researches of Henry Cavendish, edited by Maxwell.