Sir James Dewar (1842-1923)

Scottish chemist and physicist, was born in Kincardine-on-Forth, in September 20th 1842, and died in London, in March 27th 1923.

Studied in the University of Edinburgh where he graduated. Later became professor in the University of Cambridge (1875) and in the Royal Institution of London (1877). Developed a chemical formula for benzene and performed extensive work in spectroscopy for more than 25 years. In 1891 discovered a process to produce liquid oxygen in industrial quantities. Developed an insulating bottle, still named after him nowadays, to study low temperature gas phenomena. He also used this bottle to transport liquid gases like hydrogen (1898). In 1905 observed that cold charcoal could produce vacuum. This technique was quite useful for the experiments in atomic physics. Along with Sir Frederick Augustus Abel, developed the explosive whose common name is cordite.