Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
English physicist, was born in Nelson, New Zeland, in August 30th 1871, and died in Cambridge, England, in October 19th 1937.
After concluding his studies, went to the Cavendish Laboratory, in Cambridge. In 1898 was appointed Physics Professor at the University of McGill, Montreal, Canada, and in 1907 at the University of Victoria, Manchester.
Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize of Chemistry in 1908, due to his research on element disintegration and chemistry of radioactive substances. Was director of the Cavendish Laboratory from 1919 until his death. Rutherford is often referred to as the founder of nuclear physics. Distinguished alfa and beta rays and, along with Soddy, developed the theory of radioactive self-disintegrations. Introduced the concept of atomic nucleus, and performed, in 1919, the first artificial transmutation, obtaining oxygen from the alfa particle bombardment of nitrogen.