Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-1896)


Chemist, industrial, creator of dynamite and founder of the Nobel Prizes, this Swedish inventor was born in Stockholm, in October 21st 1833, and died in San Remo, Italy, in December 10th 1896.

In 1842, his family moved to St. Petersburg, where his father produced submarine mines and torpedoes for the Russian army. Nobel made several work journeys through Europe and, from 1850 to 1852, visited the United States. When Immanuel Nobel, his father, returned to Sweden, in 1859, Alfred began to work close to his research explosive laboratory in Stockholm. Made several experiences that led to the production of nitroglycerine. In September 3rd 1864, an explosion destroyed the factory, killing his younger brother.

The explosions continued, leading Nobel to try finding a less dangerous substance that could be easier to manipulate and transport. In 1863, he invented the detonator. In 1864, in Stockholm, founded the Nitroglycerine Company, the first of that kind all over the world, and in 1865 established the factory in Krummel, Germany. He invented dynamite in 1866.

To these explosive inventions one can add the fumeless gunpowder (known as lallistite, 1888). In other industry fields the production the synthetic rubber, leather and the artificial silk should be referred. Nobel registered a total of 355 patents.

After his death, he left his personal fortune to the fund created to award the Nobel Prizes.