Manganese


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The major application of the pure manganese is for making iron-manganese alloys. This absorbs more than 90% of the its total production. It is also used in non-ferrous alloys with aluminum and magnesium, copper, nickel and zinc. In the production of steel, the presence of the manganese is essential for sulfur control, and, in special steels, for the control of carbon and phosphorus.

There is a wide range of compounds of this metal, but only a scarce dozen is manufactured and has industrial interest. The principal is the dioxide, used in the production of the metal and in production of Le-Clanché batteries and as oxidizer agent used, for example, in the preparation of the hydroquinone from the aniline. The manganese oxide is used as a manganese source in fertilizers and it constitutes the usual intermediary product in preparing compounds of this element. The manganese sulfate is used for producing the metal by electrolytic processes, in manufacturing inks and varnish, in dyeing, in ceramics and as manganese source in fertilizers. The potassium permanganate is a purple colored compound, with strongly oxidizing properties, being used as disinfectant. Due to its properties, still finds usage in water treatment, in air purification and in the preparation of certain organic compounds, as for example, the saccharine. It is also widely used as analytic reagent. Finally, we refer to the salts of organic acids, as naftenate, oleate and linoleate, used in oils for inks and varnish.