Gadolinium: Properties


Atomic

  • Atomic Mass: 157.25
  • Electronegativity:
    • Pauling: 1.2
    • Allred: 1.11
    • Absolute: <3.3 eV
  • Electron Affinity: <50 kJ mol-1
  • Polarizability: 23.5 3
  • Effective Nuclear Charge:
    • Slater: 2.85
    • Clementi: 8.22
    • Froese Fischer: 11.28
  • Radius:
    • Gd 3 +: 97 pm
    • Atomic: 180.2 pm
    • Covalent: 161 pm
  • Successive Ionization Energies:
    • Gd - Gd + : 592.5 kJ mol-1
    • Gd+1 - Gd+2 : 1167 kJ mol-1
    • Gd+2 - Gd+3 : 1990 kJ mol-1
    • Gd+3 - Gd+4 : 4250 kJ mol-1
  • Common Ions : Gd 3 +