Rosto
  Artigos
Bibliografia
  Hipertextos
  LeChat II
  Perguntas
  Software
  Sugestões

O Mocho do SoftCiências

XI/1998

 

Ensino do Equilíbrio Químico

Bibliografia


  • Allsop, E., George, N. - Le Châtelier principle - A redundant principle?. Educ. in Chem. v. 3 (1984), p. 54.

  • Alvariño, J. M. et al. - Equations of state, collisional energy transfer and chemical equilibrium in gases. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 66 (1989), p. 139.

  • Anacker, E. W., et al. - Some comments on partial derivatives in thermodynamics. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 64 (1987), p. 670.

  • Appleton, A. - Thermodynamic equilibrium and the principle of virtual work. Eur. J. Phys.. V. 11 (1990), p. 297.

  • Atkins, P. - Physical Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.

  • Baierlein R. - Teaching the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium: Some pictures that help. Am. J. Phys.. V. 46 (1978), p. 1042.

  • Banergjee, Anil C. - Misconceptions of Students and teachers in Chemical equilibrium. International Journal of Science Education. V. 13, nº 4 (1991), p. 487-94.

  • Banergjee, Anil C. - The development of modules for the teaching of Chemical equilibrium. International Journal of Science Education. V. 13, nº 3 (1991), p. 355-62.

  • Beach, D. - Qualitative equilibrium, Le Châtelier Principle - A game. J. Chem. Educ.. V. 167 (1987), p. 26.

  • Boyko, E. R., Bellveau, J. F. - Simplification of some thermochemical calculations. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 67 (1990), p. 743.

  • Brice L. K. - Le Châtelier’s principle: the effect of temperature on the solubility of solids in liquids. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 60 (1983), p. 387.

  • Brogueira, P., Deus, J. Dias de - Sistemas termodinâmicos simples em contacto térmico e mecânico. Gazeta de Física. V. 18, nº 1 (1995), p. 19.

  • Brown, M. E., et al. - Thermodynamically and kinetically controlled products. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 62 (1985), p. 575.

  • Buell, R. R., Bradley, G. - Piagetian studies in Science - Chemical Equilibrium understanding from syudy of solubility: A preliminary report from secondary school chemistry. Science Education. V. 56, nº 1 (1971), p. 23-29.

  • Cachapuz, A., Maskill, R. - Using Word association in formative classroom tests follwing the learning of Le Chatelier’s Principle. International Journal of Science Education. V. 11, nº 2 (1989), p. 235-246.

  • Campbell, J. A. - Le Châtelier’s principle, temperature effects and entropy. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 62 (1985), p. 231.

  • Canagaratna, S., Selvaratnam M. - Analogies between chemical and mechanical equilibria. J. Chem. Educ. V. 47 (1970), p. 759.

  • Cohen, R. W., Whitmer, J. C. - The Gibbs function versus degree of advancement. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 58 (1981), p. 21.

  • Crosignani, B., Porto, P. Di - Approach to thermal equilibrium in a system with adiabatic constrains. Am. J. Phys.. V. 64 (1996), p. 610.

  • Curzon, A. E. - A thermodynamic consideration of mechanical equilibrium in the presence of thermally insulating barriers. Am. J. Phys.. V. 37 (1969), p. 404.

  • Curzon, A. E., Leff, H. S. - Resolution of an entropy maximization controversy. Am. J. Phys.. V. 47 (1979), p. 385.

  • David, K. W. - An elementary discussion of chemical Equilibrium. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 65 (1988), p. 407.

  • Deumié, M., Boulil, B., Henri-Rousseau, O. - On the minimum of the Gibbs free energy involved in chemical equilibrium. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 64 (1987), p. 201.

  • Fernández-Prini, R. - Le Châtelier’s principle and the prediction of the effect of temperature on solubilities. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 59 (1982), p. 550.

  • Gil, V., Cardoso, A. - Química - Dinâmica Química e Transformações da Matéria. Coimbra: Livraria Almedina, 1983.

  • Gilmore, R. - Le Châtelier’s reciprocal relations and the mechanical analog. Am. J. Phys.. V. 51 (1983), p. 733.

  • Glasstone, S. - Thermodynamics for Chemists. New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1952.

  • Gordus, A. - Chemical equilibrium: I. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant. J. Chem. Educ. V. 68 (1991), p. 138.

  • Gordus, A. - Chemical equilibrium: II. Deriving an exact equilibrium equation. J. Chem. Educ. V. 68 (1991), p. 215.

  • Gordus, A. A. - Chemical equilibrium. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 68 (1991), p. 657.

  • Gorodetsky, M., Gussarsky, E. - Misconceptualisation of the chemical equilibrium concept as revealed by different evaluation methods. European Journal of Science Education. V. 8, nº 4 (1986), p. 427-441.

  • Güémez, J., Velasco, S., Matías, M. A. - Thermal coefficients and heat capacities in systems with chemical reaction: the Le Châtelier-Braun principle. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 72 (1995), p. 199.

  • Hackling, M. W., Garnett, P. J. - Misconceptions of Chemical Equilibrium. European Journal of Science Education, V. 7 (1985), p. 205-214.

  • Hameed, H., Hackling M., Garnett, P. - Faciliting conceptual change in chemical equilibrium using a CAI strategy. Int. J. of Science Educ. V. 15 (1993), p. 221.

  • Heer, J. de - The free energy change accompaying a chemical reaction and the Gibbs-Duhem Equation. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 60 (1983), p. 648.

  • Helfferich, F. G. - Le Châtelier - right or wrong. J. Chem. Edu..V. 62 (1985), p. 305.

  • Hornack, F. M. - Reaction thermodynamics: a flawed derivation. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 65 (1988), p. 112.

  • Johnstone, A., MacDonald, J., Webb, G. - Chemical equilibrium and its conceptual dificulties. Education in Chemistry. V. 14, nº 6 (1977), p. 169-171.

  • Kemp, H. R. - The effect of temperature and pressure on equilibria: a derivation of the Van’t Hoff rules. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 64 (1987), p. 483.

  • King, E. L. - Thermodynamics of the thermal decomposicyion of water by closed chemical cycles. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 58 (1981), p. 975.

  • Kleindienst, H. - The use of differential forms in chemical thermodynamics. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 50 (1973), p. 835.

  • Kugbey, H. G. K., Anamuah-Mensah, J. - Misconceptions of Ghanaian sixth form science students about chemical equilibrium. Chemistry and Industry. V. 1, nº 2 (1987), p. 123-126

  • Laidler, K. - The world of Physical Chemistry. Oxford Press, 1995.

  • Laurie, S. H. - Kinetic stability versus thermodynamics stability. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 49 (1972), p. 747.

  • Leff, H. S. - Thermodynamics of Crawford’s energy equipartition journeys. Am. J. Phys.. V. 62 (1994), p. 120.

  • MacDonald, J. J. - Equilibria and D G0. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 67 (1990), p. 745.

  • MacDonald, J. J. - Equilibrium, free energy and entropy. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 67 (1990), p. 381.

  • Martins, Isabel P. - Ensino das Ciências e Formação de Professores. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro, 1992. Projecto MUTARE. Coordenação de Francisco Cachapuz. Número 1: "Concepções Alternativas sobre a energia nas reacções químicas".

  • Miekey, C. - Chemical equilibrium. J. Chem. Educ. V. 57 (1980), p. 801.

  • Olney, D. - Some analogies for teaching rates/equilibrium. J. Chem. Educ.. V. 65 (1988), p. 696.

  • Pfundt, Helga, Duit, Reinders - Bibliography: Students’ Alternative Frameworks and Science Education. 4ª edição. University of Kiel, Germany, Institute for Science Education, 1994.

  • Sanmartn, J. R. - Macroscopic motion and gravitation in thermodynamics. Eur.. J. Phys.. V. 16 (1995), p. 8.

  • Santos, Eduarada Moniz - Ensino das Ciências e Formação de Professores. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro, 1992. Projecto MUTARE. Coordenação de Francisco Cachapuz. Número 1: "As concepções alternativas dos alunos à luz da epistemologia bachelardiana".

  • Santos, Eduarda Moniz dos, Praia, João Félix - Ensino das Ciências e Formação de Professores. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro, 1992. Projecto MUTARE. Coordenação de Francisco Cachapuz. Número 1: "Percurso de Mudança na didáctica das ciências, sua fundamentação epistemológica".

  • Santos, M. - Mudança Conceptual na Sala de Aula- um Desafio Pedagógico. Lisboa: Livros Horizonte, 1990.

  • Sawyer, D., Martens, T. - An equilibrium machine. J. Chem. Educ. V. 69 (1992), p 551.

  • Schelly, Z. A. - The irreversible thermodynamics of chemical relaxation. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 57 (1980), p. 247.

  • Smith, N. O. - The entropy criterion for chemical equilibrium. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 62 (1985), p. 50.

  • Solomon, T. - The temperature and pressure dependence of the equilibrium properties of a system: introducing thermodynamics in the classroom. J. Chem. Educ. V. 68 (1991), p. 295.

  • Spencer, J. N. - D G and . J. Chem. Edu.. V. 51 (1974), p. 577.

  • Spencer, N. - Competitive and coupled reactions. V. 69 (1992), p. 281.

  • Toshev, B. V. - Linear thermodynamics: on the impossibility of the coexistence of two linear phases. Eur.. J. Phys.. V. 16 (1995), p. 177.

  • Treptow, R. S. - Le Châtelier principle applied to the temperature dependence of solubility. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 61 (1984), p. 499.

  • Treptow, R. S. - Le Châtelier’s Principle. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 57 (1980), p. 417.

  • Tykodi, R. - A better way of dealing with chemical equilibrium. J. Chem. Educ. V. 63 (1986), p. 582.

  • Waite, B. A. - A gas kinetic explanation of simple thermodynamics processes. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 62 (1985), p. 224.

  • Wheeler, A. E., Kass, H. - Student misconceptions in chemical equilibrium. Science Education. V. 62, nº 2 (1978), p. 223-232.

  • Wilson, Janice M - Network representations of Knowledge about Chemical Equilibrium: Variations with Achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. V. 31, nº 10 (1995), p. 1133-47.

  • Wink, D. J. - The conversion of chemical energy. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 69 (1992), p. 265.

  • Xianmin, Zheeng - The free energy prediction of reaction direction and the Principle of Le Châtelier. J. Chem. Edu.. V. 66 (1989), p. 401.

  • Yang, Z. - Efect of pressure on the equilibrium of the N2O-NO2 system and its classroom demonstration. J. Chem. Educ. V. 70 (1993), p. 94.

Topo
Rosto